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Alberta's Energy Resources: An In-depth Look

Alberta's Energy Resources: An In-depth Look

Alberta's energy landscape is a fascinating blend of traditional and cutting-edge innovation, marked by its rich reserves of oil sands, natural gas, conventional oil, coal and minerals, as

well as emerging renewable energy sources. At Alberta Energy, we believe that a comprehensive understanding of our province's diverse energy resources is integral to making informed decisions. Join us as we journey through Alberta's vast energy territory, from its storied past to its exciting present and promising future.

Disclaimer: The material found on this website is for educational purposes only. See full terms of website use here

(This article is part of our Alberta Energy education material – More articles like this can be found here).

1. Oil Sands Industry in Alberta

Our journey to understanding the oil sands industry begins with the initial discovery and exploration. The fascinating story of the first acquaintance with oil sands goes back to the late 18th century when fur trader Peter Pond noticed oil floating on the surface of a river.

John Macoun conducted the first government-sponsored geological study of the oil sands in 1875. (Source: Syncrude)
John Macoun conducted the first government-sponsored geological study of the oil sands in 1875. (Source: Syncrude)

The journey from seeing oil in a river to commercial production of oil sands is an interesting one. Commercial production began in the mid-20th century, and the Great Canadian Oil Sands (now Suncor Energy) became the first company to mine oil sands commercially in 1967.

Historical development and expansions

The Peak Oil event of the 1970s led to increased investment and expansion of the oil sands industry. Companies such as Syncrude, Imperial Oil, and Canadian Natural Resources have since become key players in Alberta's oil sands industry.

Current State of the Oil Sands Industry

Currently, oil sands development is concentrated in three areas — Athabasca, Cold Lake, and Peace River. Some notable projects include:

- Suncor's Fort Hills project

- Syncrude's Mildred Lake project

- Imperial Oil's Kearl project

Infrastructure, extraction, and refining methods

Oil sands are extracted through two main methods:

  1. Open-pit mining for deposits close to the surface.

  2. In-situ methods for deeper deposits, using techniques such as steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD).

SAGD (Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage) (Source: MEG Energy)
SAGD (Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage) (Source: MEG Energy)

Once extracted, oil sands are sent to upgraders where they're converted into synthetic crude oil. This crude oil is then refined to produce products like gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel.

The Economic Importance of Oil Sands on Alberta's Economy

Alberta's oil sands industry significantly contributes to the economy in terms of job creation and revenue generation. According to the Canadian Energy Centre, this industry:

  1. Provides direct employment to about 151,000 people.

  2. Generates over $8 billion in annual royalties and taxes.

Global influence of Alberta's oil sands industry

Moreover, Alberta's oil sands industry has an extensive global influence. According to a report by the Canadian Energy Research Institute, oil sands are expected to contribute over $1.7 trillion to Canada's GDP over the next 20 years. However, it also notes that for every direct job in the oil sands, there are roughly 2.5 indirect and induced jobs created in other sectors within Canada. This compact yet rich view into Alberta's oil sands industry showcases how deep its roots are in the province's and the nation's economic landscape.

2. Natural Gas and Conventional Oil Resources

Diving into Alberta's bounty of energy resources, we see that key contributors to the provincial energy production are natural gas and conventional oil. These resources have evolved over the years, shaping Alberta's current energy market and having varied impacts on the economy.

2. Natural Gas and Conventional Oil Resources

In the mid-19th century, the first attempts at extraction were typically small, surface-based operations, in search of coal and other fossil fuels along riverbanks and hillsides. However, the tides began to change in 1947 with the landmark Leduc #1 discovery. This find marked Alberta's first large-scale oil field, thus boosting the pace of oil and gas extraction in the province.

ii. Evolution of extraction techniques and technology

Since these early days, extraction techniques have continually evolved, driven by scientific advancements and technological innovation. The traditional 'drill and pump' methods have given way to more efficient and effective techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, and horizontal drilling. Such methods allow us to tap into previously inaccessible or uneconomical reserves, revamping Alberta's energy landscape.

b. Current Scenario of Natural Gas and Oil Market


i. Alberta's role in the global natural gas and oil markets

As per Natural Resources Canada, Alberta is the largest Canadian producer of natural gas and oil, accounting for about 68% and 81% of total Canadian output, respectively. This substantial production places Alberta as a linchpin within global oil and gas markets, substantially influencing global prices and supply-demand dynamics.


ii. Current natural gas and oil projects and their capacities

At present, major enterprises such as Suncor's Fort Hills project and the Horizon Oil Sands project, provide substantive contributions to Alberta's energy output. According to Alberta Energy Regulator data, these sites boast daily production capacities of 194,000 and 250,000 barrels, respectively.

c. Economic Impact of Natural Gas and Conventional Oil

i. Revenue generation and contribution to Alberta's GDP

The enormous scale of these projects, alongside countless smaller operations, contributes significantly to Alberta's economy. According to the Government of Canada, oil and gas extraction accounted for a hefty 21% of the province's GDP, generating substantial revenues.

ii. Impact on local industries and employment 

Apart from direct revenue generation, the oil and gas sector also bolsters other local industries. It spurs growth in manufacturing, hospitality, and construction sectors via demand for goods, services, and infrastructure. Also, as per, in 2021, about 6% of the Alberta workforce was employed directly in the oil and gas extraction sector, pointing towards its significant contribution to local employment.

3. Coal and Mineral Mining Industry

a. History of Coal and Mineral Mining

   i. Early mining activities and significant milestones 

Let's trace our roots back to the late 19th century, when coal mining began in Alberta. Initially, the industry was quite small, but the arrival of railway lines dramatically boosted its growth. For instance, Lethbridge’s Galt mines commenced operation in 1882, primarily to supply coal for the Canadian Pacific Railway. According to data from The Canadian Encyclopedia, by 1913, Alberta was producing about half the coal consumed in all of Western Canada.

   ii. Periods of booms and recessions in the industry

Alberta's coal industry has seen its fair share of peaks and valleys. The coal mining industry experienced its first major boom during World War I, with Alberta supplying a significant portion of Canada's coal production. This boom was unfortunately followed by a major recession during the Great Depression. More recently, the 1970s and 1980s saw a resurgence in coal demand for thermal power generation, with production reaching 25 million tonnes in 1980.

b. Current Coal and Mineral Mining Landscape

i. Coal and mineral reserves and their extraction 

While coal isn't the primary source of energy in Alberta today, it still plays a significant role in our energy landscape. According to Natural Resources Canada, as of 2020, Alberta produced 31% of Canada's 41 Million Tonnes coal extracted. Unlike oil and gas extraction, coal mining in Alberta is primarily done via surface mining, particularly in the areas of the Rocky Mountains and Foothills.

For minerals, the Alberta Geological Survey (AGS) reports that we can find sand, gravel, silica sand, salt, limestone, shale, peat, dimension stone and clay scattered across the province. However, Alberta's mineral extraction is minor compared to the oil, gas and coal industries.

   ii. Current projects and their impacts 

There are currently three operating coal mines in Alberta: the Cheviot, Cardinal River and Genesee mines. Yet, as the world shifts towards renewable energy, these mines face increasing scrutiny. On the upside, they contribute to the regional and local economy, providing jobs and supporting local businesses.

However, their environmental impact is a major concern. For example, the proposed Grassy Mountain Coal project's impact on water quality and wildlife habitats generated significant community opposition and led to its rejection by a federal-provincial review panel in June 2021.

c. Economic Influence of Coal & Mineral Mining

    i. Earnings and contribution to Alberta's economy 

While the coal industry's contribution to Alberta's GDP isn't as significant as oil and gas, it still has economic value. In 2019, the total sales value of coal mined in Alberta was nearly $1.5 billion. Over and above this, Alberta's mineral industry contributed about $108.4 million to the province's total revenue in 2019, most of which came from sand and gravel

    ii. Direct and indirect job creation in the region 

In terms of job creation, the coal mining industry employed approximately 1,890 people in 2019. However, the industry also produces indirect employment, such as in sectors that support the industry, like manufacturing and construction. Despite decreasing job numbers in coal mining due to market and policy changes, the mineral and mining industry remains a steady source of employment in Alberta.

4. Renewable Energy

In our bid to reduce the environmental footprint of our energy sector, we've seen the development of several clean energy policies and initiatives.

Our Alberta province is also making significant headway into renewable energy projects. For instance, the development of the "Claresholm Solar Project," in Southern Alberta is making waves as one of Canada's largest solar projects, boasting a staggering 132 MW of solar generation capacity. (source:

a. Importance of Wind and Solar Power

i. Capacity of Wind and Solar Energy Production in Alberta

AESO Current Supply Demand Report - Generation Summary - December 7,2023. DCR - Dispatched (and Accepted) Contingency Reserve. TNG - Total Net Generation. MC - Maximum Capability

In harnessing the power of natural forces, we're making substantial progress. Wind energy presently accounts for over 4,400 MW of Alberta's installed capacity. Solar, though slightly lagging behind, is projected to reach 1,500 MW by 2023.

ii. Environmental Benefits and Government Incentives

The environmental benefits of using wind and solar power are immense:

  1. Decrease of greenhouse gas emissions

  2. Reduced air and water pollution

  3. Conservation of water resources.

Moreover, our government's incentives, like the "Emissions Reduction Alberta" program, aim to stimulate growth in renewable energy sources.

c. Economic Perspectives

i. Job Creation and Local Development Through Renewable Energy Projects

Besides environmental benefits, renewable energy projects fuel job creation and local development. For example, the "Claresholm Solar Project" has kindled hundreds of jobs during its construction phase and provides ongoing operations and maintenance jobs.

ii. Future Prospects and Potential for Export in the Renewable Sector

Alberta's commitment to renewable energy unveils an exciting future filled with opportunities. Studies predict Alberta could export as much as $5 billion worth of renewable energy by 2050. Furthermore, gaining expertise and capacity in renewable energy creates the potential for Alberta to become a global competitor in this blossoming sector.


In conclusion, Alberta's vast and diverse energy resources provide a complex tapestry of opportunities and challenges. The province's significant oil sands, conventional oil, natural gas, mineral and coal resources have shaped its history, economy, and identity. They have also positioned Alberta as a central player in the global energy landscape, generating significant revenue and creating thousands of jobs across the region. 

Despite the inherent value and importance of these fossil fuels, it's clear that a transition toward renewable energy sources will lead Alberta to be a leader in tomorrow's sustainable future. Encouraging progress has been made in harnessing the untapped potentials of wind and solar power, with initiatives underway to create a cleaner, more diversified energy portfolio.

FAQ: Everything on this Topic

1. What are the primary energy resources found in Alberta? 

Alberta is rich in a variety of energy resources, including conventional oil and gas, oil sands, wind, solar, biomass, and hydro power. In addition, Alberta also has significant resources in geothermal, uranium, and natural gas liquids.

2. How much of Canada's total energy production is contributed by Alberta? 

Alberta contributes significantly to Canada's total energy production, accounting for 81% of Canada's crude oil production and 68% of Canada's natural gas production.

3. What percentage of Alberta's economy is dedicated to energy resources? 

Energy is a major driver of Alberta's economy, accounting for approximately 21% of the provincial Gross Domestic Product.

4. What is the environmental impact of energy resource extraction in Alberta? 

Alberta has adopted a number of measures to minimize the environmental impact of energy resource extraction. These measures include greenhouse gas reduction programs, improvements to environmental monitoring and reclamation practices, as well as investments in clean energy technologies.

5. How has the energy resource industry in Alberta evolved over time?

The energy resource industry in Alberta has undergone a transformation over the past decades. This has included the development of new energy technologies and improved production and safety protocols. Additionally, Alberta has experienced an increase in renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, as well as an increase in the production and use of natural gas.

6. What are the government regulations on energy resource extraction in Alberta? 

The Government of Alberta has in place a number of regulations to ensure the safe, responsible and sustainable extraction of energy resources. These regulations include guidelines for environmental monitoring, reclamation, and public safety.

6. What are the future prospects of Alberta's energy resources in terms of sustainability?

Alberta is committed to promoting sustainability in the energy sector. This includes supporting renewable energy development, implementing efficiency initiatives, and investing in carbon capture and storage projects.

9. How has Alberta's energy resource industry been impacted by climate change policies?

Alberta has introduced a number of policies related to climate change as part of its climate leadership plan. These policies have implemented a carbon levy (TIER), as well as regulations for large industrial emitters. These policies have had an impact on the energy resource industry, as companies have had to adjust their operations to comply with the regulations.

10. What initiatives are in place for the diversification of energy resources in Alberta?

Alberta is working to diversify its energy resources to ensure economic stability. As part of this effort, Alberta has invested in renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar. Additionally, the province has also implemented policies to encourage the development of new technologies, such as energy storage, clean fuels (hydrogen and biogas), energy efficiency, and carbon capture and storage.


1. Alberta Energy Regulator. (2023). ST98: Alberta Energy Outlook. Retrieved from

2. Alberta Government. (2020). Alberta's energy sector. Retrieved from

3. Alberta Government. (2023). Coal and minerals: Alberta's diverse resource portfolio. Retrieved from

4. Alberta Energy - Government of Alberta. (2023). Oil sands and heavy oil in Alberta. Retrieved from

5. Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. (2020). What are the Oilsands? Retrieved from

6. Canada Energy Regulator. (2020). Provincial and territorial energy profiles - Alberta. Retrieved from



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